The Crimean War, 1853 - 1856
dates below are by the Gregorian Calendar
- March 2, Menshikov arrives in Constantinople with demands on the Porte.
- May 21, Menshikov leaves Constantinople, breaking off relations.
- May 31, Russian ultimatum to Turkey.
- June 8, British fleet approaches the Dardanelles.
- July 2, Russian army crosses the Pruth River into Moldavia (Romania).
- October 5, Turkey declares war on Russia.
- October 28, Turkish army crosses the Danube River at Kalafat (Border with Romania & Bulgaria).
- October 30, British fleet enters the Bosphorus.
- November 4, Russians defeated by Turks at Oltenitza (Border with Romania & Bulgaria).
- November 30, Turkish naval squadron destroyed at Sinope (Asia Minor).
- January 4, Allied fleets enter the Black Sea.
- January 5, Turks win battle of Citate (Romania).
- January 8, Russians invade the Dobruja (Romania).
- February 10, British peace deputation sees the Tzar.
- February 23, The first British troops sail for Turkey.
- March 11, The British Baltic Fleet sails from Spithead.
- March 19, French troops sail for Turkey.
- March 20, French Baltic Fleet sails.
- March 28, France and Great Britain declare war on Russia.
- April 5, British troops arrive at Gallipoli.
- April 14, Russians besiege Silistra (Bulgaria).
- April 18, Turkish victory at Rohova (Border with Romania & Bulgaria).
- April 20, Austria and Prussia declare their neutrality.
- April 22, The bombardment of Odessa.
- May 28, Embarkation of French and British force for Varna (Bulgaria).
- June 23, Russians abandon the siege of Silistra.
- June 26, French and British fleets arrive off of Kronstadt, near St. Petersburg.
- July 7, Russians defeated by the Turks at Giurgevo (Border with Romania & Bulgaria).
- July 28, Russians withdraw across the Pruth River (Romania).
- July 28, In Asia Minor, the Turks defeat the Russians at Bayezid (Armenia).
- August 13, Allies besiege Bomarsund in the Baltic.
- August 16, Surrender of Bomarsund.
- August 21, Bombardment of Kola, in the White Sea, by the British squadron.
- August 30, British naval failure at Petropaulovsk.
- September 5, Allies embark at Varna for the Crimea.
- September 14, Allies land unopposed at Kalamata Bay, north of Sevastopol.
- September 19, Allies encounter Russians at the River Bulganek.
- September 20, the Battle of the River Alma.
- September 23, Russians scuttle fleet in Sevastopol to block entrance to harbour.
- September 24, Flank march by Allies around Sevastopol.
- September 26, British enter Balaklava.
- September 29, French commander, St. Arnaud, dies.
- October 17, First bombardment of Sevastopol.
- October 23, Departure from England of Florence Nightingale and 28 nurses.
- October 25, Battle of Balaklava, Charge of the Heavy Brigade, Charge of the Light Brigade, the stand of the 'Thin Red Line'.
- October 26, Russians attack of 'Little Inkerman'.
- November 4, Florence Nightingale arrives in Scutari with 38 nurses.
- November 5, The Battle of Inkerman.
- November 14, The hurricane in the Crimea.
- December 22, Lyons replaces Dundas as commander of the British Fleet in the Crimea.
- December 24, Brout succeeds Hamelin as commander of the French Fleet in the Crimea.
- January 10, Russians feint attack on Balaklava.
- January 17, Russian attack on Eupatoria, north of Kalamata Bay.
- January 26, The Kingdom of Piedmont joins the Allies.
- January 31, Lord Aberdeen's government falls.
- February 5, Lord Palmerston forms the new government.
- February 20, Allied attack across the River Chernaya frustrated by snowstorm.
- February 22, Russians seize and fortify the Mamelon, a position outside of the fortress and in front of the French lines.
- February 24, French attack on Sevastopol fails.
- March 2, Tzar Nicholas I, dies and is succeeded by Alexander II. Menshikov recalled.
- March 15, Conference of Vienna opens.
- April 4, Second Baltic expedition leaves Spithead.
- April 9, Second bombardment of Sevastopol.
- April 26, Vienna conference closes, without results.
- May 1, Fierce fighting on the French left flank at the Quarantine cemetery.
- May 2, First French expedition sails for Kertch, and is recalled by Conrobert.
- May 16, Conrobert, French Commander, resigns command, and is replaced by Pélissier.
- May 23, Expedition to Kertch sails again (Near the Sea of Azov, west of Sevastopol).
- May 25, Kertch and Yenikale captured.
- May 26, Allied naval forces enter the Sea of Azov.
- June 5, 'Massacre' of Finnish crew by Russians at Hangö (Finland).
- June 6, Third bombardment of Sevastopol. Capture of the Mamelon and the Quarries by the Allies.
- June 16, First Russian attack at Kars (Armenia).
- June 17, Fourth bombardment of Sevastopol.
- June 18, Main assault on the Malakov and Redan defeated, with heavy losses.
- June 28, Death of Lord Raglan.
- July 1, General Sir James Simpson appointed to command of the British army in the Crimea.
- July 14, Conference at which Turkish commander Omar Pasha asks permission to withdraw his troops and concentrate on Asia Minor.
- August 7, Second Russian attack at Kars.
- August 9, Bombardment of Sveaborg (Finland).
- August 16, Russian attack at Battle of the Chernaya River and defeated by French and Kingdom of Piedmont forces (Northeast of Balaklava).
- August 17, Fifth bombardment of Sevastopol.
- September 5, Sixth bombardment of Sevastopol.
- September 6, Omar Pasha leaves for Asia Minor.
- September 8, At Sevastopol, the attack on the Malakov by the French is successful. The French fail at Little Redan, and Bastion du Mât. The British fail at the Redan.
- September 9, The Russians evacuate the South Side of Sevastopol.
- September 29, Russians attack at Kars defeated. Cavalry skirmishes at Eupatoria. Omar Pasha's troops embark for Asia Minor.
- October 3, Omar Pasha's army lands at Suchum Kaleh, south of the Caucasus Mountains, with an expedition for relief of Kars.
- October 7, Kinburn expedition sails for the mouth of the Dnieper River.
- October 17, Allied expedition captures forts at Kinburn. Ochakov evacuated by Russians.
- October 22, Selim Pasha's army lands at Trebizond, and marches to Erzerum. (Armenia)
- November 6, Omar Pasha defeats the Russians at the River Ingur, south of the Caucasus Mountains.
- November 11, Sir James Simpson resigns as British Commander, and is replaced by Sir William Codrington.
- November 15, French magazine at Sevastopol explodes.
- November 26, Russians surrender at Kars.
- December 8, Omar Pasha's army forced to withdraw from the River Skeniscal, south of the Caucasus Mountains.
- December 16, Count Esterhazy takes Austria's ultimatum to St. Petersburg.
Reference: Appendix I, The Crimean War, R.L.V. Ffrench Blake, Archon Books, Hamden, CT 1972
- January 16, Tzar Alexander II accepts the Austrian demands.
- January 29, Russian guns bombard Sevastopol.
- February 25, The Paris Peace Conference opens.
- February 29, The Armistice is signed.
- March 30, The Treaty of Paris is signed.
- April 27, Ratification of the Treaty of Paris in London formally ends England's participation in the war.
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