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Joey12thga
07-17-2008, 12:02 PM
Hello


I am trying to create a CS Ambulance Corps Impression for the Western theater of Ops (GA) and ran across by Mr. Kindred’s post about what the men carried on themselves..

“There was a litter for every two men, equipped with two leather shoulder straps for easier carrying. Each member of the detachment was given a canteen, a tin cup and a haversack. In the last item were 1/8 pound of lint, four bandages, two long and two short wooden splints, sponges and tourniquets, and a pint bottle of "alcoholic stimulant."”


Now my questions to you are….

Does anyone know of a good litter pattern design? Parameters are that is has to be transportable in a car, nope don’t have a truck. Something fairly simple. We made a prototype of just stringing canvas between 2 poles and rolling and nailing (no not the best Idea). We found we need something more sturdy that doesn’t roll up when someone is in it. We also do not have an ambulance so mostly just need something to remove people to an aid station.

Where can we get? 1/8 pound of lint, four bandages, two long and two short wooden splints, sponges and tourniquets, and a pint bottle of "alcoholic stimulant.

What are good sources for me to read about the Ambulance Corps in CS ranks in the Western Theater? If it has been posted on this forum then I have most likely read it and over on the A.C. so just wanted to check any others.

What (if any) can I transfer to a US Impression Ambulance corps when I may want to do that?

Last but not least. What advice can you give me?

Charles Weathers
07-17-2008, 12:40 PM
Your impression sounds very interesting so I did a little web searching. I found these sites. Hope they help!

http://www.civilwarmed.org/collections.cfm
It mentions ALCOHOL FORTIUS as strong alcohol (I would assume the same purpose), and lint as a type of bandage material.


http://www.civilwarhome.com/woundedtransportation.htm
Great descriptions of tools, kits, gear, duties, etc.


Where exactly are you out of? What area events would you attend?

NoahBriggs
07-17-2008, 12:54 PM
Lint - get cheap muslin - the same stuff you will use for your bandages. Pull the threads from said muslin. Tie into two-inch bundles.

Warning - keep the cat out of the room if you do this.

Bandages - Take the muslin, five yards long, and divide it into two inch widths. Leave some for one-inch, three-inch, fourt-inch and a couple of six inch. Tear. Roll as per the instructions in the Hospital Stewards Manual, a link which you will find elsewhere in this forum.

Sponges - Get cheesecloth and several bags of cotton balls. Pile four cotton balls pyramid-style in the center of a four x four square of cheesecloth. Fold up the corners. Tie off with black thread. Keep a handy list of expletives nearby.

Alcoholis fortius - Two choices: load up a bottle with real whiskey, or use iced tea instead, on the off chance the patient will not drink real alcohol, either for personal reasons or because of potential allergies.

Tournequets: Get them from Ed Archer or make your own.

As for the rest, I dunno. There is a discussion on litters which asked the same question - how to make one. A search there might dredge it up.

hta1970
07-17-2008, 01:02 PM
Joey,

I'd start reading as much as you can. As ambulance corps, you are simple moving the men to the aid station for removal by ambulance. What I can tell you is you should be strong. This is not a job for anyone without upper body strength. At High Tide it was taking 4 men to pull a wounded soldier off the field given some of the geographic features they had to traverse and even then the litter bearers were stumbling and falling. This is very hard work.

Bandaging and administration of medicine was a job for the assistant surgeon accompanying the Ambulance Corps. This is not something the litter bearer would be doing.

Chisolm's 3rd Edition has some information which I will try to type up later for you.

I will also try to include some information on the Federal ambulance corps. As ambulance corps, you are an infantryman in your case detailed to the ambulance corps for the campaign. Dress like a Plain Everyday Common infantryman.

hta1970
07-17-2008, 01:13 PM
Here are a couple Special/General Orders regarding the federal Ambulance Corps

“HEADQUARTERS, ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,

“Camp near Harrison’s Landing, Va., Aug. 2, 1862.



“SPECIAL ORDERS,

No. 147

“The following regulations for the organization of the ambulance corps and the management of ambulance trains, are published for the information and government of all concerned. Commanders of Army Corps will see that they are carried into effect without delay.

“1. The ambulance corps will be organized on the basis of a captain to each Army Corps, as the commandant of the ambulance corps; a first lieutenant for a division, second lieutenant for a brigade, and a sergeant for each regiment.

“2. The allowance of ambulances and transport carts will be: one transport cart, one four-horse and two two-horse ambulances for a regiment; one two-horse ambulance for each battery of artillery; and two two-horse ambulances for the headquarters of each Army Corps. Each ambulance will be provided with two stretchers.

“3. The privates of the ambulance corps will consist of two men and a driver to each ambulance, and one driver to each transport cart.

“4. The captain is the commander of all the ambulances and transport carts in the Army Corps, under the direction of the Medical Director. He will pay special attention to the condition of the ambulances, horses, harness, etc., requiring daily inspections to be made by the commanders of the division ambulances, and reports thereof to be made to him by these officers. He will make a personal inspection once a week of all the ambulances, transport carts, horses, harness, etc., whether they have been used for any other purpose than the transportation of the sick and wounded and medical supplies, reports of which will be transmitted, through the Medical Director of the Army Corps, to the Medical Director of the Army every Sunday morning. He will institute a drill in his corps, instructing his men in the most easy and expe*ditious method of putting men in and taking them out of the ambulances, taking men from the ground, and placing and carrying them on stretchers, observing that the front man steps off with the left foot and the rear man with the right, etc. He will be espe*cially careful that the ambulances and transport carts are at all times in order, provided with attendants, drivers, horses, etc., and the kegs rinsed and filled daily with fresh water, that he may be able to move at any moment. Previous to, and in time of action, he will receive from the Medical Director of the Army Corps his orders for the distribution of the ambulances and the points to which he will carry the wounded, using the light two-horse ambulances for bringing men from the field, and the four-horse ones for carrying those already attended to further to the rear, if the Medical Director considers it necessary. He will give his personal attention to the removal of the sick and wounded from the field and to and from the hospitals, going from point to point to ascertain what may be wanted, and to see that his subordinates (for whose conduct he will be responsible) attend to their duties in taking care of the wounded, treating them with gentleness and care, and - removing them as quickly as possible to the places pointed out, and that the ambulances reach their destination. He will make a full and detailed report, after every action and march, of the operations of the ambulance corps.

“5. The first lieutenant assigned to the ambulance corps of a division will have complete control, under the commander of the whole corps and the Medical Director, of all the ambulances, transport carts, ambulance horses, etc., in the division. He will be the acting assistant quartermaster for the division ambulance corps, and will receipt and be responsible for the property belonging to it, and be held responsible for any deficiency in ambulances, transport carts, horses, harness, etc., pertaining to the ambulance corps of the division. He will have a travelling [sic] cavalry forge, a blacksmith, and a saddle; who will be under his orders to enable him to keep his train in order. He will receive a daily inspection report of all the ambulances, horses, etc., under his charge from the officer in charge of brigade ambulance corps; will see that the subordinates attend strictly to their duties at all times, and will inspect the corps under his charge once a week, a report of which inspection he will transmit to the commander of the ambulance corps.

“6. The second lieutenant in command of the ambulances of a brigade will be under the immediate orders of the commander of the ambulance corps for the division, and have superintendence of the ambulance corps for the brigade.

“7. The sergeant in charge of the ambulance corps for a regiment will conduct the drills, inspections, etc., under the orders of the commander of the brigade ambulance corps, and will be particular in enforcing rigidly all orders he may receive from his superior officers. The officers and non-commissioned officers of this corps will be mounted.

“8. The detail for this corps will be made with care by Commanders of Army Corps, and no officer or man will be detailed for this duty except those known to be active and efficient, and no man will be relieved except by orders from these headquarters. Should any officer or man detailed for this duty be found not fitted for it, representation of the fact will be made by the Medical Director of the Army Corps to the Medical Director of this Army.

“9. Two medical officers from the reserve corps of Surgeons of each division and an hospital steward, who will be with the medicine wagon, will be detailed by the Medical Director of the Army Corps to accompany the ambulance train when on the march, the train of each division being kept together, and will see that the sick and wounded are properly attended to. A medicine wagon will accompany each train.

“10. The officers connected with the corps must be with the trains on a march, observing that no one rides in the ambulances without the authority of the Medical officers, except in urgent cases; but men must not be allowed to suffer when the Medical officers cannot be found. Use a sound discretion in this matter, and be especially careful that the men and drivers are in their proper places. The place for the ambulances is in front of all wagon trains.

“11. When in camp the ambulances, transport carts, and ambulance corps will be parked with the brigade, under the supervision of the commander of the corps for the brigade. They will be used on the requisition of the regimental Medical officers, transmitted to the commander of the brigade ambulance corps, for transporting the sick to various points and procuring medical supplies, and for nothing else. The non-commissioned officer in charge will always accompany the ambulances or transport carts when on this or any other duty, and he will be held responsible they are used for none other than their legitimate purposes. Should any officer infringe upon this order regarding the uses of ambulances, etc., he will be reported by the officer in charge to the commander of the train, all the particulars being given.

“12. The officer in charge of a train will at once remove every thing not legitimate, and if there be not room for it in the baggage wagons of the regiment, will leave it on the road. Any attempt by a superior officer to prevent him from doing his duty in this or any other instance, he will promptly report to the Medical Director of the Army Corps, who will lay the matter before the Commander of the Corps. The latter will, at the earliest possible moment, place the officer offending in arrest for trial for disobedience of orders.

“13. Good serviceable horses ‘will be used for the ambulances and transport carts, and will not be taken for any other purpose, except by orders from these headquarters.

“14. The uniform of this corps is—for privates, a green band, two inches broad, around the cap, a green half-chevron, two inches broad, on each arm above the elbow, and to be armed with revolvers; non-commissioned officers to wear the same band around the cap as the privates, chevrons two inches broad, anti green, with the point toward the shoulder, on each arm above the elbow.

“15. No person will be allowed to carry from the field any wounded or sick except this corps.

“16. The commanders of the ambulance corps, on being detailed, will report without delay to the Medical Director at these headquarters for instructions. All division, brigade, or regimental Quartermasters having any ambulances, transport carts, ambulance horses, or harness, etc., in their possession, will turn them in at once to the commander of the division ambulance corps.

“By command of Maj.-Gen. MCCLELLAN.

“(Signed) S. WILLIAMS,

Assistant Adjutant-General.”

hta1970
07-17-2008, 01:14 PM
(Revision of General Orders No. 147)

“AMBULANCE CORPS AND AMBULANCE TRAINS.

“HEADQUARTERS, ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,

August 24, 1863.

“GENERAL ORDERS,

No. 85.

“The following revised regulations for the Organization of the Ambulance Corps, and the management of the Ambulance Trains, are published for the government of all concerned, and will be strictly observed:

“1. The Army Corps is the unit of organization for the Ambulance Corps, and the latter will be organized upon the basis of one captain as the commandant of the corps, one first lieutenant for each division, one second lieutenant for each brigade, one sergeant for each regiment.

“2. The privates of this corps will consist of two men and one driver to each ambulance, and one driver to each medicine wagon.

“3. The two-horse ambulances only will be used, and the allowance, until further orders, to each corps, will be upon the basis of three to each regiment of infantry, two to each regiment of cavalry, one to each battery of artillery, to which it will be permanently attached, and two to the headquarters of each army corps, and two army wagons to each division. Each ambulance will be provided with two stretchers.

“4. The captain is the commander of all the am*bulances, medicine and other wagons in the corps, under the immediate direction of the Medical Director of the army corps to which the Ambulance Corps belongs. He will pay special attention to the condition of the ambulances, wagons, horses, harness, etc., and see that they are at all times in readiness for ser*vice; that the officers and men are properly instructed in their duties, and that these duties are performed, and that the regulations for the corps are strictly adhered to by those under his command. He will institute a drill in his corps, instructing his men in the most easy and expeditious method of putting men in and taking them out of the ambulances, lift*ing them from the ground, and placing and carrying them on stretchers, in the latter case observing that the front man steps off with the left foot and the rear man with the right, etc.; that in all cases his men treat the sick and wounded with gentleness and care; that the ambulances and wagons are at all times provided with attendants, drivers, horses, etc.; that the vessels for carrying water are constantly kept clean, and filled with fresh water; that the ambulances are not used for any other purpose than that for which they are designed and ordered. Previous to a march he will receive from the Medical Director of the Army Corps his orders for the distribution of the ambulances for gathering up the sick and wounded; previous to and in time of action, he will receive orders from the same officer where to send his ambulances, and to what point the wounded are to be carried. He will give his personal atten*tion to the removal of the sick and wounded from the field in time of action, going from place to place to ascertain what may be wanted; to see that his subordinates (for whose conduct he will be responsible) attend faithfully to their duties in taking care of the wounded, and removing them as quickly as may be found consistent with their safety to the field hospital, and see that the ambulances reach their desti*nation. After every battle he will make a report, in detail, of the operations of his corps to the Medical Director of the Army Corps to which he belongs, who will transmit a copy, with such remarks as lie may deem proper, to the Medical Director of this Army. He will give his personal attention to the removal of sick when they are required to be sent to general hospitals, or to such other points as may be ordered. He will make a personal inspection, at least once a month, of every thing pertaining to the Ambulance Corps, a report of which will be made to the Medical Director of the Corps, who will transmit a copy to the Medical Director of this Army. This inspection will be minute and made with care, and will not supersede the constant supervision which he must at all times exercise over his corps. He will also make a weekly report, according to the prescribed form, to the same officer, who will forward a copy to the Medical Director of this Army.

“5. The first lieutenant assigned to the Ambulance Corps for a division will have complete control, under the captain of his corps, and the Medical Director of the Army Corps, of all the ambulances, medicine, and other wagons, horses, etc., and men in that portion of the Ambulance Corps. He will be the Acting Assistant Quartermaster for that portion of the corps, and will receipt for and be responsible for all the property belonging to it, and be held responsible for any deficiency in any thing appertaining thereto. He will have a travelling [sic] cavalry forge, a blacksmith, and a saddler, who will be under his orders, to enable him to keep his train in order. His supplies will be drawn from the depot quartermaster, upon requisitions approved by the captain of his corps, and the commander of the army corps to which he is attached. He will exercise a constant supervision over his train in every particular, and keep it at all times ready for service. Especially before a battle will he be careful that every thing be in order. The responsible duties devolving upon him in time of action render it necessary that he be active and vigilant, and spare no labor in their execution. He will make reports to the captain of the corps, upon the forms prescribed, every Saturday morning.

“6. The second lieutenant will have command of the portion of the Ambulance Corps for a brigade, and will be under the immediate orders of the commander of the ambulances for a division, and the injunctions in regard to care and attention, and supervision prescribed for the commander of the division, he will exercise in that portion under his command.

“7. The sergeant will conduct the drills, inspec*tions, etc., under the orders and supervision of the commander of the ambulances for a brigade, be par*ticular in enforcing all orders he may receive from his superior officer, and that the men are attentive to their duties. The officers and non-commissioned officers will be mounted. The non-commissioned officers will be armed with revolvers.

“8. Two Medical officers and two hospital stewards will be detailed daily, by roster, by the Surgeon in Chief of Division, to accompany the ambulances for the division when on the march, whose duties will be to attend to the sick and wounded with the ambulances, and see that they are properly cared for. No man will be permitted, by any line officer, to fall to the rear to ride in the ambulances, unless he has written permission, from the senior Medical officer of his regiment, to do so. These passes will be carefully preserved, and at the close of the march be trans*mitted, by the senior Medical officer with the train, with such remarks as he may deem proper, to the Surgeon-in-Chief of his division. A man who is sick or wounded, who requires to be carried in an ambulance, will not be rejected, should he not have the permission required; the Surgeon of the regiment who has neglected to give it, will be reported at the close of the march, by the senior Surgeon with the train, to the Surgeon-in-Chief of his division. When on the march, one-half of the privates of the Ambulance Corps will accompany, on foot, the ambulances to which they belong, to render such assistance as may be required. The remainder will march in the rear of their respective commands, to conduct, under the order of the Medical officer, such men as may be unable to proceed to the ambulances, or who may be incapable of taking proper care of themselves until the ambulances come up. When the case is of so serious a nature as to require it, the Surgeon of the regiment, or his assistant, will remain and deliver the man to one of the Medical officers with the ambulances. At all other times the privates will be with their respective trains. The medicine wagons will, on the march, be in their proper places, in the rear of the ambulances for each brigade. Upon ordinary marches, the ambulances and wagons belonging to the train will follow immediately in the rear of the division to which it is attached. Officers connected with the corps must be with the train when on the march, observing that no one rides in any of the am*bulances except by the authority of the Medical officers. Every necessary facility for taking care of the sick and wounded upon the march will be afforded the Medical officers by the officers of the Ambulance Corps.

hta1970
07-17-2008, 01:15 PM
“9. When in camp, the ambulances will be parked by divisions. The regular roll-calls, reveille, retreat, and tattoo, will be held, at which at least one com*missioned officer will be present and receive the re*ports. Stable duty will be at hours fixed by the cap*tain of the corps, and at this time, while the drivers are in attendance upon their animals, the privates will be employed in keeping the ambulances to which they belong in order; keeping the vessels for carrying water filled with fresh water, and in general police duties. Should it become necessary for a regimental Medical officer to use one or more ambulances for transporting sick and wounded, he will make a requisition upon the commander of time ambulances for a division, who will comply with the requisition. In all cases when ambulances are used, the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men belonging to them will accompany them; should one ambulance only be required, a non-commissioned officer, as well as the men belonging to it, will accompany it. The officers of the Ambulance Corps will see that ambulances are not used for any other purposes than that for which they are designed, viz., the transportation of sick and wounded, and, in urgent cases only, for medical supplies. All officers are expressly forbidden to use them, or require them to be used, for any other pur*pose. When ambulances are required for the transportation of sick or wounded at Division or Brigade headquarters, they will be obtained, as they are needed for this purpose, from the division train; but no ambulances belonging to this corps will be retained at such Headquarters.

“10. Good, serviceable horses will be used for the ambulances and medicine wagons, and will not be taken for any other purpose except by orders from these headquarters.

“11. This corps will be designated for sergeants, by a green band, one and a quarter inches broad, around the cap, and chevrons of the same material, with the point toward the shoulder, on each arm above the elbow. For privates, by a band, the same as for ser*geants, around the cap, and a half chevron of the same material on each arm above the elbow.

“12. No person except the proper Medical officers, or the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of this corps, will be permitted to take or accompany sick or wounded to the rear, either on the march or upon the field of battle.

“13. No officer or man will be selected for this service except those who are active and efficient, and they will be detailed by corps commanders only.

“14. Corps commanders will see that the forego*ing regulations are carried into effect.

“By command of Major-General MEADE.

“S. WILLIAMS,

Assistant-Adjutant-General.

Joey12thga
07-17-2008, 02:14 PM
Would it be safe to assume that US ambulance Corp practices were fairly similar no matter what army they are in? I am readin the AOP things you posted and find it very interesting. I do portray federal troops but they are AOtT or some other Western Army. So guessing similar as the East though.


Thanks to everyone for your help. I knew their would be a wealth of info over here.

hta1970
07-17-2008, 02:59 PM
From ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES THE ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 1818-1865
by Mary C. Gillett

"Working under Grant for this campaign were three Army corps, one of which, under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, set an example for the others in the management of the sick and wounded, while a second, under Maj. Gen. John McClernand, particularly needed to improve in this regard. McClernand was more of a politician than a soldier and, like Buell before him, tended to neglect his sick and wounded, leaving them behind without supplies or attendants and, on at least one occasion, without ambulances as well. Despite rough terrain and poor roads, the ambulance system in Sherman's IV Corps, which was basically that created by Letterman, was so effective that Medical Inspector Edward Vollum persuaded Grant to adopt it for his entire army. After March 1863, therefore, Grant's ambulance corps was organized by division, with a commissioned officer commanding each unit at the division level, a noncommissioned officer in charge of each at the brigade level, and one driver plus two enlisted men assigned to each ambulance."38

38 Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, 2 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1870-88), 2, pt. 3:398; Duncan, Medical Department, pt. 3, p. 14; Joseph E. King, "Shoulder Straps for Aesculapius: The Vicksburg Campaign in 1863," Military Surgeon 114 (1954):218-19.

Joey12thga
07-21-2008, 03:03 PM
Your impression sounds very interesting so I did a little web searching. I found these sites. Hope they help!

http://www.civilwarmed.org/collections.cfm
It mentions ALCOHOL FORTIUS as strong alcohol (I would assume the same purpose), and lint as a type of bandage material.


http://www.civilwarhome.com/woundedtransportation.htm
Great descriptions of tools, kits, gear, duties, etc.


Where exactly are you out of? What area events would you attend?

Sorry I didnt mean to ignore your post, I missed it.

to answer your questions.

I am in South GA, near FL.

I do a lot of North GA things like Resaca, Tunnle Hill, stuff liek that in the mainstream side. CPH stuff i do all over.

I would mostly use this impression for places I think warrants it's use in the historical context (as in we know they were used and not specualting). Lh programs and the like.

Charles Weathers
07-21-2008, 03:04 PM
Sorry I didnt mean to ignore your post, I missed it.

to answer your questions.

I am in South GA, near FL.

I do a lot of North GA things like Resaca, Tunnle Hill, stuff liek that in the mainstream side. CPH stuff i do all over.

I would mostly use this impression for places I think warrants it's use in the historical context (as in we know they were used and not specualting). Lh programs and the like.

No prob! I was just hoping you would attend some events that I do! ;-)

Spinster
07-21-2008, 04:07 PM
Joey,

To purchase some of your supplies ready made, contact Tim Kindred through this board. He has a stock of well-researched items, including bandages, tourniquets, armbands, labels and such like. Some will be appropriate for your Western theatre impression, others won't--and Tim will be quick to tell you.

In the course of doing some some sewing for him last year, Tim sent me a number of examples of his label work, all of which have proved useful to us.

Now, I'm curious on a couple of points. 1/8 th of a pound of lint? That's a heck of a lot of lint, as the stuff can be big on volume and small on weight--what source are you drawing from that wants the litter bearers to have this much?

And Noah? All I've ever seen on lint wanted me to get it from LINEN, not cotton muslin. Are we talking 'reasonable price substitute here' or a different documentation source?

Making proper lint has got to be THE most boring job in all the world. I worked down a couple of yards of good linen over a span of years. It is however, a sit-down job in the shade, which is more than can be said for most 19th century jobs.