PDA

View Full Version : Assistant Surgeon vs. Junior Assistant Surgeon



"Doc" Nelson
10-17-2006, 08:43 PM
Well, I have a different question. What's the difference between a Federal Assistant Surgeon and a Federal Junior Assistant Surgeon in regards to uniform insignia? I'm guessing the Asst Surgeon would normally hold the rank of Captain? And, the Junior Asst Surgeon would hold the rank of 1st Lieutenant? I am interested in knowing, to ensure that the uniform that I wear in my impression would be appropriate. Right now, I am portraying an Assistant Surgeon and wear the Captain shoulder straps, with the "MS" in the center.

Thanks,;)

NoahBriggs
10-18-2006, 05:21 AM
I have never heard of a junior assistant surgeon. Could you provide a source for that? I'd be curious to know.

GrumpyDave
10-18-2006, 05:54 AM
When this was written, I can't say.

§ 207. Grades, ranks, and titles of commissioned corps
How Current is This?

(a) Grades of commissioned officers
The Surgeon General, during the period of his appointment as such, shall be of the same grade as the Surgeon General of the Army; the Deputy Surgeon General and the Chief Medical Officer of the United States Coast Guard, while assigned as such, shall have the grade corresponding with the grade of major general; and the Chief Dental Officer, while assigned as such, shall have the grade as is prescribed by law for the officer of the Dental Corps selected and appointed as Assistant Surgeon General of the Army. During the period of appointment to the position of Assistant Secretary for Health, a commissioned officer of the Public Health Service shall have the grade corresponding to the grade of General of the Army. Assistant Surgeons General, while assigned as such, shall have the grade corresponding with either the grade of brigadier general or the grade of major general, as may be determined by the Secretary after considering the importance of the duties to be performed: Provided, That the number of Assistant Surgeons General having a grade higher than that corresponding to the grade of brigadier general shall at no time exceed one-half of the number of positions created by subsection (b) of section 206 of this title or pursuant to subsection (c) of section 206 of this title.

The grades of commissioned officers of the Service shall correspond with grades of officers of the Army as follows:
(1) Officers of the director grade—colonel;
(2) Officers of the senior grade—lieutenant colonel;
(3) Officers of the full grade—major;
(4) Officers of the senior assistant grade—captain;
(5) Officers of the assistant grade—first lieutenant;
(6) Officers of the junior assistant grade—second lieutenant;
(7) Chief warrant officers of (W–4) grade—chief warrant officer (W–4);
(8) Chief warrant officers of (W–3) grade—chief warrant officer (W–3);
(9) Chief warrant officers of (W–2) grade—chief warrant officer (W–2); and
(10) Warrant officers of (W–1) grade—warrant officer (W–1).

(b) Titles of medical officers
The titles of medical officers of the foregoing grades shall be respectively
(1) medical director,
(2) senior surgeon,
(3) surgeon,
(4) senior assistant surgeon,
(5) assistant surgeon, and
(6) junior assistant surgeon. The President is authorized to prescribe titles, appropriate to the several grades, for commissioned officers of the Service other than medical officers. All titles of the officers of the Reserve Corps shall have the suffix “Reserve.”


(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–76, title III, § 304(b), Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 584

(d) Maximum number in grade for each fiscal year
Within the total number of officers of the Regular Corps authorized by the appropriation Act or Acts for each fiscal year to be on active duty, the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the maximum number of officers authorized to be in each of the grades from the warrant officer (W–1) grade to the director grade, inclusive. Such numbers shall be determined after considering the anticipated needs of the Service during the fiscal year, the funds available, the number of officers in each grade at the beginning of the fiscal year, and the anticipated appointments, the anticipated promotions based on years of service, and the anticipated retirements during the fiscal year. The number so determined for any grade for a fiscal year may not exceed the number limitation (if any) contained in the appropriation Act or Acts for such year. Such regulations for each fiscal year shall be prescribed as promptly as possible after the appropriation Act fixing the authorized strength of the corps for that year, and shall be subject to amendment only if such authorized strength or such number limitation is thereafter changed. The maxima established by such regulations shall not require (apart from action pursuant to other provisions of this chapter) any officer to be separated from the Service or reduced in grade.

(e) Exception to grade limitations for officers assigned to Department of Defense
In computing the maximum number of commissioned officers of the Public Health Service authorized by law to hold a grade which corresponds to the grade of brigadier general or major general, there may be excluded from such computation not more than three officers who hold such a grade so long as such officers are assigned to duty and are serving in a policymaking position in the Department of Defense.

(f) Exception to maximum number limitations for officers assigned to Department of Defense
In computing the maximum number of commissioned officers of the Public Health Service authorized by law or administrative determination to serve on active duty, there may be excluded from such computation officers who are assigned to duty in the Department of Defense.

Search this title:



Notes
Updates
Parallel authorities (CFR)
Your comments




Copyright
The compilation of materials gathered here by the editors of the LII and the pages holding them are protected by copyright, with the copyright held by Cornell University.
Distribution of these pages on the Internet does not constitute consent to any use of this material for commercial redistribution either via the Internet or using some other form of hypertext distribution. Links to the collection or individual pages in it are welcome.
Many of the judicial opinions, statutes, regulations and other legal materials accessible from these pages are maintained by other institutions. Their use is, therefore, subject only to such conditions as those institutions set.
In those cases where the underlying texts are government documents, those texts lie in the public domain. The LII does not assert copyright in US Government works, but we do claim copyright in markup, navigation apparatus, and other value-added features of electronic editions of government publications. This material is covered by a Creative Commons license, viewable at:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/
In brief, the terms of that license are that you may copy, distribute, and display this work, or make derivative works, so long as
• a) you give the LII credit;
• b) you do not use this work for commercial purposes; and
• c) you distribute any works derived from this one under the same licensing terms as this.
Potential commercial users/licensors should contact us at:
lii@lii.law.cornell.edu
Conditions of Use
The LII compilations aim to provide useful information. This should not be confused with legal advice. While the editors endeavor to have each collection at this site be accurate and complete, neither the LII nor Cornell warrants that the information is complete or accurate. Both disclaim all liability to any person for any loss caused by errors or omissions in this collection of information.


http://www2.law.cornell.edu/comments/credits.html

Davis Wright
10-18-2006, 06:49 AM
When this was written, I can't say.

§ 207. Grades, ranks, and titles of commissioned corps
How Current is This?

(a) Grades of commissioned officers
The Surgeon General, during the period of his appointment as such, shall be of the same grade as the Surgeon General of the Army; the Deputy Surgeon General and the Chief Medical Officer of the United States Coast Guard, while assigned as such, shall have the grade corresponding with the grade of major general;


I can't really help with when this section may have been originally drafted, however, based on the language quoted above, I can tell you that the portion quoted above was amended (if not created) after 1915.

The Coast Guard (as it uses that title) was formed in 1915 after the merger of the Revenue Cutter Service, the Lifesaving Service and (later) the Lighthouse Service.

Also, this section seems to address ranks for commissioned officers of the United States Public Health Service. The Coast Guard does not use its own doctors and has PHS commissioned officers staff any Coast Guard hospitals, etc. The army, navy (& Marines) and the air force have their own medical departments/regulations.

What is the full CFR cite for this section?

hanktrent
10-18-2006, 07:28 AM
Ditto to what Noah said. I've not run across it as an official designation in the US army at the time. The few times it's used, the junior seems to be merely an adjective, meaning least senior.

What's the context where you've seen it?

Hank Trent
hanktrent@voyager.net

Micah Trent
10-18-2006, 08:15 AM
I have got one reference that might help everyone out here.
There was a guy named William A. Hammond who received that title during the Civil War, according to this source. To learn more about him go to:

www.civilwarhome.com/medicinehistory.htm

Actually the entire page there is pretty good and worth reading.

Hope this helps.

Micah Trent

NoahBriggs
10-18-2006, 08:59 AM
From the context it looks like Hammond's title of Junior Asst. surgeon was more informal and reflected the fact he had only been in the Army for a short while before resigning the commission to work as the professor at U. of Md.

There was a surgical heirarchy - the surgeons (generally major or above) decided on the procedure for each patient and went to work; the assistant surgeons (captains and first lieutenants, and rank was awarded for accomplishments) did just that - assisted, and observed. From this context, it sounds like the "junior" is, again, an informal designation which reflects the medical hierarchy, rather than the foraml military ranking system.

I, too, have the MS on my straps. I plan to change them out, though. Based on my research the MS was a personal embellishment and the majority of the surgeons wore the black background staff officers' straps.

hanktrent
10-18-2006, 09:14 AM
Hammond is pretty well known and his career and appointment pretty well documented, thanks to all the subsequent controversy. The only time I've seen his rank referred to as that, is in that article.

Here's the original text nominating him as surgeon general, and he's referred to just as "assistant surgeon." From http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(ej01261 (DOCID+@lit(ej01261)))



The President of the United States.
To the Senate of the United States:
I nominate Assistant Surgeon William A. Hammond, of the Medical Department, for appointment in the Army of the United States, as proposed by the Secretary of War.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
Washington, April 18, 1862.




War Department,
Washington, April 18, 1862.

Sir: I have the honor to propose for your approbation the following-named person for appointment in the Army of the United States:
Assistant Surgeon William A. Hammond, of the Medical Department to be surgeon-general with the rank of brigadier-general, to fill an original vacancy.
I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant,
EDWIN M. STANTON,
Secretary of War.

I wonder if the article was using "junior" as an adjective again, meaning he had little seniority, since he'd resigned from the military prior to the war, and had only accepted a commission again when the war began. For example, this article http://history.amedd.army.mil/tsgs/Hammond.htm describes his position: "He resigned his professorship and on May 28, 1861, he reentered the army as an assistant surgeon at the foot of the list upon which he had formerly held high place."

The Medical Department of the United States Army in the Civil War by Louis C. Duncan says he had the rank of first lieutenant when he was nominated for surgeon general.

Hank Trent
hanktrent@voyager.net

NoahBriggs
10-18-2006, 09:39 AM
Sorry about my off-the-cuff, undocumented replies. It's not laziness, just lack of access to research materials where I work.

Micah Trent
10-18-2006, 09:54 AM
Good stuff.

Here's a thought...maybe you can help me with this, but at times...was the term "junior" sometimes referred to individuals who were active in the field of practice, but had yet to finish their schooling of that practice?
I am not referring this to Hammond or anything like that...I am just thinking of other ways I have heard it mentioned.
Just trying to make more sense of the term "junior"

Thanks,
Micah Trent

"Doc" Nelson
10-18-2006, 09:57 PM
Noah,
I am trying to find where I had read that at. In fact, I have read it a few different times. I have also seen a listing for a "1st Assistant Surgeon". I have not been able to find any regulations or such on an actual position of Junior Assistant Surgeon or, 1st Assistant Surgeon. Now, from reading articles after doing a "Google Search", the only thing I can come up with would be, basically as you guys have said (well, as Hank stated and, with what Noah said about Dr. Hammond). It's more of a level of seniority at an assignment say, to a Regiment? Where, if you have 2 Assistant Surgeons, I guess one would be considered a "Junior" and the other, maybe a Senior Assistant or 1st Assistant Surgeon???? I have been searching like crazy to find anything solid that supports these titles. I'm scratching my head trying to find information on this.

Thanks,

"Doc" Nelson
10-18-2006, 10:13 PM
Here are a couple of links to some websites, that have information about a "1st Assistant" and a "2nd Assistant Surgeon". Now, with what I have read, so far. To me, it seems you guys may be right in your comments. It does seem that the "1st, 2nd or Junior", refers to their seniority at the post assigned to (Regiment, Hospital, etc.).

http://www.15thwisconsin.net/15ssoh01.htm
http://www.15thwisconsin.net/15sssl01.htm
http://www.quinnipiac.edu/other/ABL/etext/13thct/original-reg.html
http://home.att.net/~dogsgt/history1a.html
http://www.geocities.com/capecanaveral/lab/1419/csmith.html

DrMcGuire
10-26-2006, 12:06 PM
According to "Doctors In Blue," ranks of surgeons in the US Army were not as clear cut as they were in the Confederate Army. It seemed that many of the physicians serving the Union were quite concerned with status and demanded ranks that were indicative of seniority.

I also have never heard of a Junior Assistant Surgeon

David Meister
09-01-2012, 04:06 PM
I have seen reference made to 1st and 2nd assistant surgeons on the Illinois muster rolls online they are abbreviated 1asurg and 2asurg

"Doc" Nelson
09-01-2012, 06:47 PM
I, too, have seen quite a few references. I'm pretty sure that it is in reference to seniority. As per US Army regulations, 1861 ... when Surgeons were appointed, they were given the pay and emoluments of a "Major of Cavalry" ... and Assistant Surgeons were given the pay and emoluments of a "1st Lieutenant of Cavalry".

Of course, the "gradual" promotion to Captain were made on a few occasions (Surgeon James W. Fitzpatrick of the 9th Massachusetts is the first to pop in my head).

cwdoc45
09-18-2012, 11:29 PM
The reference to a dental officer places this in 1911 or after as the dental corps for the US Army was not formed until that date.