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Pvt Schnapps
08-19-2010, 01:57 PM
Wikipedia is not normally a preferred source of mine, but in using it as a starting point I came across this passage in the article on "Minstrel Show" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minstrel_show:

"Despite these pro-plantation attitudes, minstrelsy was banned in many Southern cities.[40] Its association with the North was such that as secessionist attitudes grew stronger, minstrels on Southern tours became convenient targets of anti-Yankee sentiment.[41]"

Digging a little deeper into period sources, I was surprised at how little I could find related to minstrelsy in a paper like the "Richmond Daily Dispatch", and somewhat intrigued to find this in the "Daily True Delta" (New Orleans) of November 6, 1858:

"THE AMPHITHEATRE. -- While our contemporaries, the other morning, spoke in the main complimentary of the musical powers of the Buckley Serenaders, we stood alone in the expression of a 'ratherish' plain, and certainly a candid opinion, as to their merits, and of negro minstrelsy generally.
"Touching itinerant negro minstrels, few thoughtful persons can hold any other opinion than that sketched in the issue in which that opinion appeared. But aside from the lampblack and the ridiculousness of the efforts to give real imitations of the Southern negro, we were willing to test the Buckleys as mere singers, and could not see, when we applied a charitable test, that they could be called artists in their peculiar line...."

The passage from "the other morning" (November 4) elaborates the writer's general opinion:

"...For some years past, we have been accustomed to look upon negro minstrels as lamp-blacked Bedouins. To say that a Northern imitator of a Southern negro, is a capital imitator, is not up to the standard of truth... Nobody conversant with the city or plantation negro of Louisiana, will for a moment contend that the Buckleys, or the Campbells, at all aproach them in naturalness. The hearty, whole-souled laugh, the spontaneous jocundity, the swagger and *abandon of the real negro, can not be imitated to perfection..."

http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=i_QFVEgXGzMC&dat=18581104&printsec=frontpage

In other words, to the writer in the "True Delta," the minstrel show was a northern phenomenon that not only failed in its imitation of real black people, but was also pretty lame in its own terms.

So now I'm sort of left wondering how authentic it is to hear Confederate string bands or groups of Rebel soldiers around camp fires singing "Negro" dialect songs penned by northern white men and published in New York. Was the writer in the "True Delta" an anomaly, or did most southerners actually accept the fanciful northern stereotype? How typical would it be for a southern soldier to sing minstrel pieces like "Old Dan Tucker" rather than other kinds of songs and ballads, say "I Would Not Have Thee Young Again" or "My Mother's Bible"?

GeorgeWunderlich
08-19-2010, 02:14 PM
The answer lies in the regimental histories and in the parodies of song lyrics written in the south during the war. This will give us the best answer. In the mean time think about this.

While blackface was frowned upon as the war got closer, there is little doubt that some songs from the genre were well ingranied in the south. It was reported that in 1858 plantation slaves were heard singing "Blue tail Fly" by a northern visitor.


Remember also that Stuart carried a minstrel with him. Sweeney was with Stuart most of the war and minstrel tunes were his bread and butter.

I think the negative press was not so much the music as the performers. To a southerrn audience they lacked authenticty. The two (performer and music) may need to be separtated in this case.

Pvt Schnapps
08-19-2010, 02:39 PM
The answer lies in the regimental histories and in the parodies of song lyrics written in the south during the war. This will give us the best answer. In the mean time think about this.

While blackface was frowned upon as the war got closer, there is little doubt that some songs from the genre were well ingranied in the south. It was reported that in 1858 plantation slaves were heard singing "Blue tail Fly" by a northern visitor.


Remember also that Stuart carried a minstrel with him. Sweeney was with Stuart most of the war and minstrel tunes were his bread and butter.

I think the negative press was not so much the music as the performers. To a southerrn audience they lacked authenticty. The two (performer and music) may need to be separtated in this case.

I hear you, but isn't inauthenticity at the heart of the minstrel phenomenon? It's not just a question of white performers but of white composers applying music hall sensibilities to a culture they know nothing about, and mangling a dialect they have little exposure to.

If inauthenticity was off-putting -- and at least in the case of the New Orleans newspaper man it was -- then the songs would have little hold on the average southerner.

One thinks, by way of comparison, of Thomas Wentworth Higginson's sense of wonder when he encountered the real thing, and the delight he takes in recording spirituals in "Army Life in a Black Regiment." But then, being a northerner, he probably heard more than his share of minstrelsy. At the end of his chapter on music he writes, "A few youths from Savannah, who were comparatively men of the world, had learned some of the 'Ethiopian Minstrel' ditties, imported from the north. These took no hold upon the mass..."

Maybe Stuart represented the equivalent southern white "man of the world."

hanktrent
08-19-2010, 04:23 PM
Check out a search like this:

http://search.atomz.com/search/?sp_a=sp1001f6f0&sp_f=iso-8859-1&sp_q=%22minstrels%22+

Lots of announcements of minstrels performing in the south.

I can certainly see that a southerner would consider a northern imitation of a black performer to be a poor imitation. There's the iconic image that one often sees in period images of a black man asked to dance for an admiring group of white men.

But even the New Orleans newspaper, quoted in the OP, admits: "While our contemporaries, the other morning, spoke in the main complimentary of the musical powers of the Buckley Serenaders..."

And, let's face it, it was a low-class form of entertainment. Snobbish people just weren't going to praise the artistry of a minstrel troup, no matter how good it was.

So I can imagine a southern planter saying to a northern guest, you think you Yankees can imitate a true Negro singing and dancing? Come out here, Sambo, and show him how it's done.

But based on the examples of minstrel shows put on by professionals and amateurs in the (mostly southern) newspaper search above, I'm not sure that one can extrapolate that southerners wouldn't have known or enjoyed minstrel songs. "Dixie," after all, was straight from the minstrel stage.

I'm especially curious about this, though, from the Wikipedia article:

"Despite these pro-plantation attitudes, minstrelsy was banned in many Southern cities.[40] Its association with the North was such that as secessionist attitudes grew stronger, minstrels on Southern tours became convenient targets of anti-Yankee sentiment.[41]"

The first footnote leads to this page (http://books.google.com/books?id=2Lg5mDUSgYsC&pg=PA38&vq=cities&dq=inauthor:%22eric+lott%22&output=html&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1) in Lott's book (I don't have access to the book in footnote 41):


One might begin by recognizing that the minstrel show most often glossed not white encounters with life on the plantation... but racial contacts and tensions endemic to the North and the frontier... This regional subtext was ignored, denied, and repressed by its contemporaries (and has been ever since)... But southern venues always had a troubled relationship to minstrel performance, some cities in the South even banning it as the slavery controversy escalated in the 1850s. It was largely the industrializing North that was the minstrel show's immediate cultural purview, political referent, and context of performance.

Okay, I get the first part. Minstrel shows were "supposed" to be about Blacks' life in the south, but in reality they were created for and shaped by the entertainment demands of a northern audience.

But why were they banned in the south? Where? How? When? I think that would help give insight into period mindset.

In a quick search, all I could find were echoes of Lott's book, and, oddly enough, this (http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html): "Emmett was attacked by abolitionist newspapers and his group, Bryant’s Minstrels, was banned from performing in Northern cities during the Civil War."

Hank Trent
hanktrent@gmail.com

Pvt Schnapps
08-19-2010, 10:20 PM
To me, the interesting question is how much "Negro Minstrelsy" was a part of the experience of the average southern soldier. Based on what I've read so far, I'll hazard the following opinions, in order of least to most controversial:

1. "Negro Minstrelsy" was an very popular art form from the 1840s through the end of the 19th century. Indeed, some aspects of it survived into living memory -- e.g., "Amos and Andy" on the radio and early TV.

2. "Negro Minstrelsy" was largely a northern creation, originating around Buffalo New York and thriving in the New York City area in the years immediately before the Civil War.

3. "Negro Minstrelsy" provided a lot of entertainment among northern troops and audiences during the civil war.

4. Southern audiences don't mention it so much. Heros von Borcke, for example, discusses the minstrelsy of Stuart's banjoist Sweeney, but spends equal time on Sweeney's arrangements of Schottisches, Polkas, and Walzes for Stuart's dance parties, and marches. Check it out at: http://books.google.com/books?id=FhK_6XS2UPoC&dq=confederate%20songs&pg=PA341#v=onepage&q=music&f=false

5. Augustus Dickert's history of Kershaw's Brigade similarly mentions march music, but not minstrelsy: http://books.google.com/books?id=zc_ighHkiZkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=history+of+kershaw's+brigad&hl=en&ei=F-ptTMTzFYGB8gb9s4maDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=music&f=false

6. Entire books, such as "War Lyrics and Songs of the South" (1867) present songs purportedly sung by southern soldiers, none of which are products of northern minstrelsy: http://books.google.com/books?id=MA0iAAAAMAAJ&dq=confederate%20songs&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false Ditto "TheGrayjackets and How They Lived, Fought, and Died for Dixie": http://books.google.com/books?id=gtI8AAAAYAAJ&dq=confederate%20songs&pg=PA3#v=onepage&q&f=false

7. Similarly, "Campfires of the Confederacy" presents a lengthy chapter on songs and poems with no references to minstrelsy apart from "Dixie," "Old Folks at Home," and -- oddly enough, "Year of Jubilo." http://books.google.com/books?id=Q8FXLY3vKv8C&dq=confederate%20songs&pg=PP10#v=onepage&q&f=false

8. Thus, despite current practice and recordings, there seems to be little contemporary evidence for Negro minstrelsy as a significant form of southern musical expression, especially compared to marches, dance music, and indigenous white balladry.

None of this is meant to detract from the importance of minstrelsy as a popular music form in the middle of the 19th century. I'm glad that people research and recreate it. But I suggest that there are other forms of popular music that are perhaps more appropriate for the Confederate impression that we should also focus on, including marches, ballads, and other lyrics that soldiers actually sang.

In fact, Hank, a significant number of the "minstrel" performances in the link you gave represent pre-war tours of northern groups, or performances in border venues like Kansas, or urban centers like Savannah.

I suggest that, by concentrating on "Negro Minstrelsy," we may be in danger of overlooking much of the actual musical expression of the war in favor of an "old timey" caricature. I would love, for example, to hear someone working on the "Southern Marsellaise" and similar pieces: http://books.google.com/books?id=TrITAAAAYAAJ&dq=confederate%20songs&pg=RA1-PA34#v=onepage&q=confederate%20songs&f=false

Again, I don't want to eliminate minstrelsy, but put it in proper perspective.

hanktrent
08-20-2010, 09:25 AM
6. Entire books, such as "War Lyrics and Songs of the South" (1867) present songs purportedly sung by southern soldiers, none of which are products of northern minstrelsy:

Those are supposed to be songs about the war and the southern cause, though, right? So I'm not sure they'd include minstrel songs anyway, anymore than a book of northern songs about the war (http://books.google.com/books?id=acTmAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA2&output=html) would include "Dandy Jim," no matter how much or little it was sung in camp.

Still, I see your point--minstrelsy was as much a northern phenomenon as rap music is an inner city one today. The question is, how far out of its origins did it spread?


But I suggest that there are other forms of popular music that are perhaps more appropriate for the Confederate impression that we should also focus on, including marches, ballads, and other lyrics that soldiers actually sang.

I'd say, for a middle-to-upper-class northern impression, that's true also. There was way more than minstrelsy. Jenny Lind captured the popularity of the nation without ever putting on blackface, as far as I know. ;) In a quick glance, this 1851 Jenny Lind songster (http://books.google.com/books?id=OKoQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR3&dq=jenny+lind+songs&hl=en&ei=kIluTOGSOsSDnQe-krHPBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEYQ6AEwAw#) out of Boston doesn't include a single minstrel song, though minstrel shows should have been well underway, and most of the songs are unfamiliar to reenactors, including me.

So here's a question, then.

If minstrel songs should be relegated to a minor position in the south, what was the equivalent demographic (white lower-class) singing and listening to for entertainment in the south? What were the funny, edgy songs of the bar-room and the southern theater, or were there none? Was it really all sad and serious, like Lorena, or stirring patriotic marches?

We don't really have to go back to singing "It's All For Me Grog," do we? ;)

Silas
08-20-2010, 11:30 AM
Schaffner, you're just mad because you don't remember all the words to De History Ob De World.

Pvt Schnapps
08-20-2010, 01:01 PM
Schaffner, you're just mad because you don't remember all the words to De History Ob De World.

Well, not mad Silas, but awfully frustrated. :) I enjoyed the heck out of the chorus, though. And I didn't think it inappropriate. I just assumed you'd spent a lot of time in Savannah hanging out in the theater scene.

Hank, you raise a good question and make an excellent point. Any period song, whether or not it's PEC for a specific impression, beats the pants off vaguely "old-timey" substitutes.

I don't know what the southern working class equivalent is of "Dandy Jim." The Confederate Song Book and similar works I cited purport to reflect what was actually sung during the war and, since they seemed to be aimed at an audience that would know, would seem to warrant some credence.

But maybe this is where our constraints and sensibilities differ from theirs. For reenactors, field music and bands are relatively rare and personal banjos and guitars never further than the nearest A tent or parking lot. Back in the day, during the active operations of the real armies, band music would have been more prominent, and there were a huge number of songs in current publication that could have been sung a cappella around the camp fire. Maybe these *were mostly sentimental and the lighter stuff came from the fifers and drummers.

This whole area is new to me, which probably shows. But since I've already crawled well out onto the limb, here's another question I've been wondering about: If minstrelsy hit its highest point before the war -- perhaps peaking as early as the late 40s ("Zip Coon" was written in 1834; the "Boatman's Dance" in 1843, ditto "Dandy Jim") or early 50s (when Foster's career started to wind down) -- how relevant was it to the young soldier in his late teens or early twenties on the front lines two decades after some of the biggest hits had come out?

After all, big bands still played in the 1960s, and Bob Hope still did USO tours long after that point, but neither reflected the culture of the soldiers fighting in southeast Asia.

hanktrent
08-20-2010, 02:02 PM
The Confederate Song Book and similar works I cited purport to reflect what was actually sung during the war and, since they seemed to be aimed at an audience that would know, would seem to warrant some credence.

Yes, I didn't mean to imply the songs they included weren't sung (except maybe Goober Peas :( ), just that they may not include the totality of songs sung, since they were focussed on war-specific songs, not what people still sang from before the war.


how relevant was it to the young soldier in his late teens or early twenties on the front lines two decades after some of the biggest hits had come out?

My guess--just a guess at this point, so I would be interested in more data--was that blackface minstrelsy was like rock music's sustained popularity for several generations now, still going strong but altering somewhat over time, since blackface was still current in the vaudeville generation, long post-war.

Here's an article from the 1890s (http://books.google.com/books?id=o90RAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA286&output=html) on the changes in minstrel shows over time, noting that they were still performed, but not the same as they were forty years ago. ("The Decadence of a Black Art," starting at the bottom of the page).

Here's what George Christy (http://books.google.com/books?id=FneJSvClXJEC&printsec=frontcover&output=html)was publishing in 1862, "Containing a Choice Collection of New and Popular Songs... Darkey Jokes, and Plantation Wit." Of course, there's no way of knowing from the book alone whether it was aimed at old fogeys or Young America. Also look at p. 82 for a list of other song books, many of which are obviously minstrel-type songs ("Ethiopian," etc.)

I'd say, though, that one could check the pulse of Young America's music, among city-dwelling northerners, at least, by following Tony Pastor's (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Pastor) career. He was only 24 himself when the war started, and incorporated blackface and comic minstrel songs, as well as immigrant and other parodies, in his wildly popular New York city performances late-war and post-war.

So I think one could make a case that minstrel songs were still popular even among the younger generation in northern cities, but I have no idea how that applies to the south, since most of my research on Young America focuses on northern cities. What was the equivalent of Tony Pastor's or the Old Bowery in New Orleans? I have no idea.

Hank Trent
hanktrent@gmail.com

Silas
08-20-2010, 02:56 PM
The words to "History" and the rest of the songster I made for In The Van can be downloaded from the event listserve.

Hooley's songster is worth a look if you have not seen it : http://www.archive.org/details/hooleysoperhouse00newyrich Despite having a New York publishing in 1863, it has province to San Francisco. It's got very strong McClellan bias. You'll find several songs which are minstrel as well as some which are anti-Mick.

My recollection is that there are three versions of Ephraim's Lament there. This is a very minstrel tune and apparently very popular during the war as I've seen other versions of it from period songsheets. Few people know about poor Ephraim and his broken heart. Ephraim was first published in the late 1840's but was still going strong during the war.

reb64
08-22-2010, 05:42 PM
[QUOTE=hanktrent;160557]Check out a search like this:

http://search.atomz.com/search/?sp_a=sp1001f6f0&sp_f=iso-8859-1&sp_q=%22minstrels%22+

Lots of announcements of minstrels performing in the south."

The announcements were of occupied areas. Regardless, admittedly the south had its problems with race, thats a given. But northern interpretations, propaganda and mockery is and was seen as stereotypical misleading and inflammatory characterizations of southern life. In house is one thing, outsiders another.

hanktrent
08-22-2010, 06:50 PM
Check out a search like this:

http://search.atomz.com/search/?sp_a=sp1001f6f0&sp_f=iso-8859-1&sp_q=%22minstrels%22+

Lots of announcements of minstrels performing in the south."

The announcements were of occupied areas.

Huh?

#1: Memphis TN in November 1861, the presumably local "Tennessee Minstrels" are listed as performing a benefit for sick and wounded soldiers, presumably Confederate, since the other items talk about pro-southern things, obeying Pres. Davis's proclamation, staring at Yankee prisoners brought to town, etc.

#1 (later in the same paper) November 1861, a Richmond Virginia manager posts a notice "To the Theatrical and Negro Minstrel Profession" wanting to hire performers for his theater.

#2: Richmond VA in August of 1864, the Olio Minstrels

#2 (later in the same paper), Richmond VA in September 1864, the Confederate Minstrel Band. I'm sure Lincoln wished it was an occupied area...

#3: July 1862 Natchez Mississippi, "eighteen gentlemen of Natchez have formed a Relief Minstrel Club," and later in the paper, the Confederate minstrels "composed of discharged soldiers from the Confederate army," who'd performed previously in Selma and Knoxville.

#4: Okay, this one is a letter by New Yorker Dan Bryant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryant's_Minstrels) defending minstrels, published in a New Orleans newspaper. Doesn't help.

#5: July 1862, Houston Texas, "Ethiopian Minstrels of Brown's Battalion." That's a Confederate battalion, right?

So I'm not sure what you mean, that the announcements were of occupied areas? They seem to indicate exactly the premise in question, that there were minstrel shows being held by southerners/Confederates during the war.


Regardless, admittedly the south had its problems with race, thats a given. But northern interpretations, propaganda and mockery is and was seen as stereotypical misleading and inflammatory characterizations of southern life. In house is one thing, outsiders another.

I could see that as a reason, sort of the old thing of "I can kick my dog but you can't kick my dog." Do you have examples of that being expressed in the period?

Hank Trent
hanktrent@gmail.com

hanktrent
08-23-2010, 01:02 PM
Just for random information, ran across this article in Vicki Betts' newspaper research. (http://www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/richmond_whig_jy-de_1864.htm)It's a New York article reprinted in a Virginia paper in 1864. Doesn't really talk about north vs. south, but talks about the backgrounds of the northern performers, which is kinda interesting.



RICHMOND [VA] WHIG, November 26, 1864, p. 2, c. 2


The African Opera.

The New York Herald devotes over a column to "negro minstrelsy and burned cork." The programmes, the music, the performers, salaries, etc., are each the subject of a descriptive paragraph. A great deal which everybody knows is said, but some of the statements are curious, if not interesting.

Most of the really charming melody in negro minstrelsy, says the Herald, was contributed by the late Stephen C. Foster, who possessed a talent for this species of composition which has never been equaled.—The prevailing sentiment of the songs now used is that of filial affection. "Who'll care for Mother Now?" and "Mother, I've Come Home to Die" are examples of this tendency.


The men who blacken their faces and appear nightly before the public as negroes, are composed chiefly of mechanics out of situations, clerks, music teachers who cannot get any scholars, and young men (to folly inclined) who have good voices, but little else.

Old "gags" are kept on for years, and standard jokes are repeated, on an average, once in three weeks.—The "end men" cherish their special gags with the fondest care, and are very indignant if any one else should use them.

The salaries of the negro minstrels range from $20 to $30 per week, (in greenbacks.) A "wench dancer" gets only from $18 to $25. The latter are young men from fifteen to twenty-five years of age, and are generally fond of fine clothes. They wish to appear as "fast youths." They sport seven or eight hundred dollar diamond pins, and wear the most showy and elaborate clothes that fashion will permit. They seem imbued with the love of finery, which is so well known a characteristic of the African race which they mimic.

The best singers among the minstrels in New York and Brooklyn are engaged on Sundays in the various choirs. Two-thirds of the minstrels cannot read at sight the most ordinary music.

Cork is indispensable to negro minstrelsy. It is provided in the shape of a pulverized powder, usually prepared expressly for the purpose. A thin past[e] is mixed in one hand, and then both hands are rubbed together. Afterwards, the face and neck are washed with the black mixture. It acts as a preservative of the complexion! Most of the minstrels abominate cork, and apply it night after night with increased loathing.


There are probably over five hundred men constantly engaged in the minstrel profession in the United States. Their besetting sin is intemperance, though, of course, there are many of them who are quite free from this habit, and are in private life real gentlemen. Whatever may be the attractions elsewhere, there is always a large crowd of noisy and delighted patrons to attend and enjoy the negro minstrel performances.

Hank Trent
hanktrent@gmail.com

Pvt Schnapps
08-23-2010, 09:33 PM
Just for random information, ran across this article in Vicki Betts' newspaper research. (http://www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/richmond_whig_jy-de_1864.htm)It's a New York article reprinted in a Virginia paper in 1864. Doesn't really talk about north vs. south, but talks about the backgrounds of the northern performers, which is kinda interesting.



Hank Trent
hanktrent@gmail.com

It's an interesting article, but I'm not sure quite how to read it. On one hand it could be a question of "Here's what minstrels do in the north, compare it to what our guys make," or it could be a "Here's what our minstrels could make if we didn't need EVERY able-bodied white man in the army," or it could be "Here's another example of the degeneracy of northern civilization," or it could just be "Here's something interesting to take your mind off the war."

What continues to impress me about that series of articles in the Richmond Whig (http://www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/richmond_whig_ja-je_1864.htm) is how many other kinds of songs were in publication and apparently had some popularity in the south.

Cadet
10-13-2010, 04:57 PM
Since Wikipedia can be updated by anyone, anyone going to take what's been learned on this thread to update Wikipedia with valid and correct information?

FloridaHoosier
10-13-2010, 07:20 PM
Since Wikipedia can be updated by anyone, anyone going to take what's been learned on this thread to update Wikipedia with valid and correct information?

Wikipedia is not a creditable source for research on this forum, and is to be used as a basic search tool only. It is a reasonable site to find sources for doing your own research, but one that we as a site discourage deeply for quotes and the like. Its a beginning, not the end, of research.

VA Soldier
10-14-2010, 10:20 PM
Just a couple of observations along with questions in a sense.

The original question raised was concerning how popular and well known minstrel music was in the South effecting how much it should be portrayed by Confederate reenactors in the field today. I would think that like many things reenactors portray they are much more complicated than they first appear. I would say what a soldier liked to hear, or sing for that matter, would depend heavily upon the social class of that person along with where they came from. What is the likely hood that a young soldier from the mountains of Virginia or North Carolina would have heard the same style music of say one from Richmond, Atlanta, or New Orleans? Or even a person from an affluent family versus one from a less well to do family?

How much would their taste change as they came into contact with other people from other stations who liked and performed other types of music? Begging the question how much did the war effect musical trends after the war? I don't have any easy answers I am just posing it for consideration.

I would think the poor mountain boy would know the songs of the hills which would be for the most part songs and ballads from the Old Country - even today in some remote parts of Appalachia slight variants of Elizabethen English can still be heard. On the other hand minstrel music may be the stuff of the more prominent centers where there was a greater chance of minstrel bands performing. If the two should meet during the course of the war there may have been some blending.

I would love to hear what more learned people in the field of music history have to say on this subject.

D.A. Jackson